Multi-objective optimization of a liquid metal cooled heat sink for electronic cooling applications


International Journal of Thermal Sciences, vol.190, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 190
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.ijthermalsci.2023.108325
  • Journal Name: International Journal of Thermal Sciences
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, PASCAL, Aerospace Database, Communication Abstracts, Compendex, INSPEC, Metadex, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Keywords: Cooling, Gallium, Heat sink, Liquid metal, Optimization
  • Erzincan Binali Yildirim University Affiliated: Yes


Recently, studies on the use of MCHS applied to chips to benefit from the high thermal conductivity of liquid metals have been increasing. This study came up with an optimum choice for MCHS geometric parameters, MCHS material, Gallium-based liquid metal coolant type, and coolant inlet velocity. Total thermal resistance (Rtot), initial investment cost (Ci), pressure drop (ΔP), and maximum operating temperature (Tmax) are selected as performance parameters. I-optimality algorithm used for generation of the Design of Experiment (DoE) based on the Response Surface Method. The optimization parameters and their levels are determined by performing a parametric study. The derived mathematical models for selected performance parameters Rtot, Ci, Tmax, and ΔP, which are also objective functions, are tested by ANOVA with prediction accuracy of 0.983%, 0.997%, 0.886%, and 0.996%, respectively. As a result, the determined optimum values of the channel width, channel height, half of fin width, fin slope angle, and inlet velocity, are 1.16 mm, 3.00 mm, 0.24 mm, 5.96°, and 0.4 m s−1, respectively. In addition, a hybrid structure in which the base of the designed MCHS is aluminum, and the fins are copper, and the GaIn compound for the coolant are calculated as the optimum material options.