In this study, Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) analysis were used to examine the genetic relationships among eight Aethionema species (Aethionema caespitosum, A. arabicum, A. cordatum, A. fimnraitum, A. armenum, A. speciosum supsp. speciosum, A. memraneceum, A. grandiflorum var. grandiflorum) growing in the wild in Eastern Anatolia, Turkey. Fourteen RAPD primers and 7 ISSR primers were used. The UPGMA cluster was constructed using a combination of data from RAPD and ISSR markers. The Aethionema species were classified into two major groups. The similarity matrix values of between 0.182 (A. cordatum, A. speciosum supsp. speciosum) and 0.927 (A. grandiflorum var. grandiflorum, A. cordatum). High genetic variations among Aethionema species growing in the wild in Eastern Anatolia, Turkey may reveal differences in their origin. The present study suggests that both RAPD and ISSR analysis are useful for the differentiation of the Aethionema species. (C) 2016 Academie des sciences. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.