Shot peening treatment is a well-known and practical method to improve surface properties of materials. In this method, surfaces of materials are peened by small steel shots and thus, surface hardening is provided. Although it is used in a wide range of applications, this process could affect the electrochemical behavior of materials because of changing surface properties. Therefore, the effects of shot peening process on the electrochemical properties of a low-alloy steel were examined in the present study. AISI 4140 low-alloy steel samples were shot peened in different intensities of 16 A, 18 A, 20 A and 24 A. Afterwards, corrosion tests were carried out at room temperature in a 3.5% NaCl solution. Open circuit potential (OCP) electrochemical polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analysis were performed in corrosion tests. The microstructural, morphological and surface properties of samples were analyzed by XRD, SEM and 3D surface profilometer. The structural analyses showed that grain structure of the material was affected by shot peening treatment. A plastically deformed zone, which have extended and refined grain structure, formed after shot peening processes. Electrochemical analyses indicated that the corrosion resistance of the material increased with the increasing shot peening intensity owing to grain refinement and formation of sub-grains. Also, examinations on the corroded surfaces showed that crevice corrosion was the main mechanism for shot peened samples.