Purpose. Pseudoexfoliation syndrome (PEX) is an eye disease that develops under the influence of regional population differences, genetic factors, age, and environmental factors and is characterized by visualization of a gray-white fibrogranular substance in the lens anterior capsule and/or pupil margin during anterior segment examination. The underlying biochemical mechanisms of the disease have not yet been fully elucidated. Therefore, this study was designed to show the changes in aqueous humor and blood serum levels of matrix metalloproteinases (decorin and tenascin C), total antioxidants (TAS), and total oxidants (TOS) in both cataract patients who have unilateral PEX material and cataract patients who do not have unilateral PEX material. Methods. Biological samples were simultaneously collected from 22 cataract patients who had unilateral pseudoexfoliation (PEX patients) and 22 cataract patients who did not have unilateral pseudoexfoliation (control patients). From the collected biological samples, decorin (DEC) and tenascin C (TN-C) were measured with the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method, and TAS and TOS were measured with an autoanalyzer. Results. When decorin, tenascin C, and TOS values of PEX patients were compared with those of control patients, there was a statistically significant increase in all three parameters. Conversely, TAS values showed a statistically significant decrease in PEX patients compared to controls. DEC, TN-C, TAS values, and TOS values were significantly higher in aqueous fluid than in blood in both the PEX patient and control groups. Conclusions. We suggest that parameters such as DEC, TN-C, TAS, and TOS play a role in the etiopathology of pseudoexfoliation syndrome. Thus, bringing these increased levels of extracellular proteins and TOS and decreased levels of TAS back to within physiological limits can mediate the reorganization of the blood-aqueous fluid barrier and slow the progression of pseudoexfoliation syndrome.