Yargıtay 11’inci Hukuk Dairesi’nin 23.01.2017 Tarih ve 2017/38 Esas, 2017/444 Karar Sayılı Kararı Çerçevesinde Şirketin Yetkili Temsilcisi Aracılığıyla Düzenlenen Bonolarda Asıl Borçlu Sıfatının Belirlenmesi Üzerine Düşünceler


Al Kılıç Ş. , Narbay Ş.

İstanbul Hukuk Mecmuası , cilt.78, ss.193-223, 2020 (ESCI İndekslerine Giren Dergi)

  • Cilt numarası: 78 Konu: 1
  • Basım Tarihi: 2020
  • Doi Numarası: 10.26650/mecmua.2020.78.1.0007
  • Dergi Adı: İstanbul Hukuk Mecmuası
  • Sayfa Sayısı: ss.193-223

Özet

Bononun mutlak zorunlu unsurlarından birisi de, düzenleyenin imzasıdır. Bazen kanuni bir zorunluluktan, bazen de kişinin iradesinden ötürü bono temsilci aracılığıyla da düzenlenebilir. Dolaylı temsile ilişkin durum haricinde, bu şekilde düzenlenen bonolarda düzenleyen sıfatı, temsil olunana aittir. Ticaret şirketleri ise, iradelerini yetkili organları aracılığıyla ortaya koyabilirler. Ancak ticaret şirketlerinin yetkili organı eliyle düzenlenen bir bonoda, temsil ilişkisinden söz edilemez. Bu senet bizzat ticaret şirketi tarafından düzenlenmiş olarak kabul edilir. Çalışmamıza konu Yargıtay kararında, biri sağ alt köşeye biri de matbu kefil kısmına basılan şirket kaşelerinden yalnızca sağ alt kısımdaki şirket kaşesinin, kaşeyi taşırmadan aynı yetkili temsilci tarafından iki kez imzalanması suretiyle düzenlenen bir bonoda, senette matbu olarak yer alan ödeyecek kısmının, şirketin yetkili temsilcisinin adı ve soyadı yazılarak doldurulduğundan bahisle, yetkili temsilcinin düzenleyen; şirketin ise, avalist olduğu sonucuna varılmıştır. Oysa, Kanunda aranılan (mutlak) zorunlu unsur, düzenleyenin imzası olduğundan; şirketin yetkili temsilcisi eliyle şirket unvanı altında imzalanan bir bonoda, düzenleyen olarak “şirket” kabul edilmelidir

One of the absolute compulsory elements of the promissory note is the signature of the issuing person. Sometimes due to a legal obligation or sometimes the will of the person, the promissory note can be issued through an authorized representative. Except for the situation related to the term indirect representation, it is the represented person who is deemed to have the legal responsibilities on the promissory note as issuing the instrument if it is issued through a legal representative. Commercial companies use their will through their authorized bodies. However, the term representation cannot be mentioned when a promissory note is issued through the authorized bodies of the commercial companies. Instead, this instrument is deemed to be issued directly by the commercial company itself. The decision of the court of appeals, which constitutes the subject of our work, is related to two marks of the company stamp; one of which is located on the right bottom corner of the instrument, and the other one, which is located on the printed designated area for Yargıtay 11’inci Hukuk Dairesi’nin 23.01.2017 Tarih ve 2017/38 Esas, 2017/444 Karar Sayılı Kararı Çerçevesinde Şirketin Yetkili Temsilcisi Aracılığıyla Düzenlenen Bonolarda Asıl Borçlu Sıfatının Belirlenmesi Üzerine Düşünceler Şafak Narbay* , Şengül Al Kılıç** This work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License İstanbul Hukuk Mecmuası 78/1 194 Extended Summary Like the rest of the negotiable instruments, a promissory note must contain the signature of the person who issues the instrument. Pursuant to specific provisions of law, a wet signature is required on the instrument. For the liability of the person who issues the instrument to arise, this signature must be affixed to comprise the whole instrument which contains the rest of the compulsory elements. In that manner, a sole signature of the person who issues the instrument will be enough to issue a negotiable instrument if the rest of the compulsory elements exist. The right to issue a negotiable instrument can be exercised by persons aside from the owner. Hence, the wet signature can be affixed by the right owner, as well as a representative having his authority from either assignment of the right owner or a legal necessity. Representation can be subject to several discriminations like voluntarylegal, direct-indirect, active-passive representation, but the sort of representation mainly regulated in Turkish Code of Obligations is direct representation. In case of direct representation, the representative issues the instrument, and the represented person will have the statue of the issuer. However, according to specific provisions of Turkish Code of Obligations, an unauthorized representative will legally be liable as the issuer had the issuer himself does not perform a latter ratification. In case the representative exceeds his legal authority, and this being not subject to a latter validation by the represented legal person, it is proper to acknowledge that the representative will be liable for the exceeded amount, and the represented legal person will be liable for the authorized amount. To issue a promissory note to a commercial company, it must be signed under the trade name of the company by the authorized body due to fact that the will of the commercial company can only be used by virtue of their authorized bodies. Under this circumstance, an act of the body of the commercial company will be at stake rather than an act of representation. Therefore, the promissory note will be deemed to be issued directly by the commercial company. In case of representation of the commercial company, the general rule is to represent the commercial company the guarantor. The one which is located on the right bottom corner of the instrument, is signed twice, without exceeding the mark of the stamp. In the context of this very instrument, it is decided upon that the company is the legal person who signs a surety, and the authorized representative of the company is the person who issues the instrument, regarding the fact that the printed designated area, indicating the person who performs the payment, filled with the name and surname of the authorized representative. However, the company itself should be deemed as the person who issues the instrument, even if the promissory note is signed by an authorized representative under the commercial name of the commercial company, since the signature of the person who issues the instrument is an absolute mandatory element required by the law for issuing the promissory note.