This work reports on an alternative method for the determination of element concentrations in human milk. Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometer with an annular Am-241 and Fe-55 sources was applied for the analysis of human milk samples. A sample preparation method suitable for the EDXRF analysis was described. The results were presented in Table 1. Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence technique has been successfully used for the determination of calcium and other elements in human milk. For this reason, the experimental approach and the analytical method used in this study appear adequate for the purpose and can therefore be exploited for similar investigations. (C) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.