This study investigated the protective effect at the molecular level of etodolac against ovarian injury induced in rats with ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). Rats were divided into four groups. The 25 mg/kg etodolac + ovarian ischemia/reperfusion (EIR 25) and 50 mg/kg etodolac+ovarian ischemia/reperfusion (EIR 50) groups were given etodolac by the oral route 1 h before administration of anesthesia. Two h of ischemia and 2 h of reperfusion were applied to ovarian tissue in all groups (except for (SG) sham operation group) 1 h after etodolac administration. The experimental results showed that etodolac at a dose of 50 mg/kg suppressed MPO (myeloperoxidase), TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta gene expression in ovarian tissue with I/R better than at a dose of 25 mg/kg. In addition, etodolac at these doses prevented a decrease in SOD gene expression in ovarian tissue subjected to I/R to a significant extent (p < 0.0001). In conclusion, etodolac can be used in the treatment of I/R-related ovarian injury.