In this study, the effect of mirtazapine on rat kidneys versus ischemia-reperfusion (IR) damage was biochemically and histopathologically investigated. The results have shown that malondialdehyde (MDA) level of healthy rat group is 15.2 mu mol/g protein. The level of this substance was measured as 26.7 mu mol/g in only ischemia group. The MDA levels of IR and mirtazapine + renal ischemia-reperfusion (MRIR) groups were 39 +/- 17.6 mu mol/g protein. While myeloperoxidase activity of healthy rat group was 20.2 u/g, the activities of only ischemia, IR, and MRIR groups were 28, 36.3, and 21 u/g, respectively. The glutathione levels were measured as 17.7, 12.8, 7.5, and 16.2 nmol/g in healthy, only ischemia, IR, and MRIR groups, respectively. Finally, glutathione S-transferase activities of healthy, only ischemia, IR, and MRIR groups were determined as 20, 13.8, 7.1, and 18.3 u/g, respectively. Histopathologically, while hemorrhage in interstitial area was observed in only ischemia group, significant tubular epithelial swelling, necrosis, and cast accumulation were seen in IR group. In MRIR group, only mild tubular epithelial swelling and mild hyaline cast accumulation were observed in kidney tissue. Consequently, it can be said that mirtazapine has a protective effect on IR-induced kidney damage.