Background. Desflurane is a mainstay of general inhaled anesthetics with a methyl ethyl ether structure and is widely used in clinical practice. It has been reported to induce inflammation and lipid peroxidation in rat pulmonary parenchyma, to increase alveolar macrophages, and to cause peribronchial infiltration and edema. Rutin, a flavonoid vitamin P1, is known to have biological properties including acting as an antioxidant, an anti-inflammatory, and an inhibitor of bronchoalveolar polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PNL) infiltration. Objectives. The aim of this study is to examine the effects of rutin on desflurane-induced pulmonary injury using biochemical and histopathological methods. Materials and methods. The rats were divided into 3 groups (n = 6 each): healthy control (HC), rutin+desflurane-treated (DRT) and desflurane-only (DSF). Briefly, 50 mg/kg of rutin was given orally to the DRT group and an equal volume of normal saline was given to the DSF and HC groups. After 1 h, anesthesia was induced and maintained in the DRT and DSF groups for 2 h. After the rats had been sacrificed, the lungs were removed. Malondialdehyde (MDA), total glutathione (GSH), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-KB) levels were measured in the excised lung tissue. The removed tissues were also fixed in 10% formalin, and the obtained sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and evaluated under light microscopy. The biochemical and histopathological results of the DRT group were compared with those obtained from the DSF and HC groups. Results. Desflurane increased MDA, TNF-alpha and NF-KB, and decreased GSH in lung tissue. The PNL infiltration, alveolar macrophages, hemorrhage, alveolar damage, and edema were observed in the lung tissue of the DSF group. Rutin was histopathologically shown to protect lung tissue from oxidative stress by preventing an increase in oxidant parameters and a decrease in antioxidants. Conclusions. The results suggest that rutin may be useful in the treatment of desflurane-associated lung injury.