Investigation of Giardia spp., Cryptosporidium spp. and Cyclospora cayetanensis in Samples Collected from Different Spring Waters Iğdır, Türkiye Farklı Kaynak Sularından Alınan Örneklerde Giardia spp., Cryptosporidium spp. ve Cyclospora cayetanensis’in Araştırılması Iğdır, Türkiye

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AKKAŞ Ö., Gürbüz E., Aydemir S., Şahin M., Ekici A.

Turkiye Parazitoloji Dergisi, vol.47, no.2, pp.71-77, 2023 (Scopus) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 47 Issue: 2
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.4274/tpd.galenos.2023.74936
  • Journal Name: Turkiye Parazitoloji Dergisi
  • Journal Indexes: Scopus, BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, CINAHL, Veterinary Science Database, Directory of Open Access Journals, TR DİZİN (ULAKBİM)
  • Page Numbers: pp.71-77
  • Keywords: Iğdır, native-Lugol, nested PCR, parasite, water
  • Erzincan Binali Yildirim University Affiliated: Yes


Objective: In this study, it was aimed to investigate the physical and chemical properties of different spring waters and parasitic factors with different methods. Methods: This study was carried out on 69 water samples collected from different spring waters in and around Iğdır Province in April and June 2021. The samples were analyzed by native-Lugol, modified acid-fast staining, and nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR). In addition, altitude (meter) and pressure (mmHg) measurements were made at the point where the water samples were taken. Results: One or more parasites were detected in 27.5% of the 69 water samples examined. Only C. cayetanensis was found in 13% of the samples, only Cryptosporidium spp. in 10.1%, only Giardia spp. in 1.4%, only C. cayetanensis and Giardia spp. in 1.4%, only C. cayetanensis, Cryptosporidium spp., and Giardia spp. in 1.4%. Only Giardia spp. cyst (4.3%) was detected by the direct examination method. While C. cayetanensis and Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were detected in 8.7% and 7.2% of the samples by the modified acid-fast staining method, C. cayetanensis was detected in 15.9% and Cryptosporidium spp. was detected in 11.6% of the samples by nPCR. When the C. cayetanensis and Cryptosporidium spp. positivity rates were compared according to the characteristics of the water, there was no statistical difference between the altitude, salinity, pH, mmHg, and temperature (kelvin) values, but a significant correlation was found between the amount of dissolved oxygen and Cryptosporidium spp. positivity (p=0.047). Conclusion: Cryptosporidium spp., C. cayetanensis, and G. intestinalis are important waterborne pathogens that can cause epidemics. It is our belief that in order to reduce the risk of contamination of these parasitic factors with spring waters, public awareness should be raised, infrastructures should be improved, and new water treatment techniques, such as ultraviolet, ozonation and monitoring systems, should be used.