This article presents the outcomes of a comprehensive study utilizing all-natural perlite in producing lightweight aggregate concrete composites and investigating the mechanical, permeability, and durability properties. With this aim, lightweight concrete composites were produced using 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 75% and 100% of natural perlite aggregate in concrete production. In addition to fresh density, compressive strength, ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV), dynamic modulus of elasticity, capillary absorption, electrical resistivity, acid and sulfate attack tests were carried out on 28–56–90-day-old concretes. Accordingly, the highest compressive strength value was obtained after 90 days using 10% natural perlite (62.42 MPa for NP10/90). In terms of UPV values, concretes with natural perlite were able to produce good or excellent class concretes. The experimental results indicated that the increase in the dynamic modulus of elasticity of concretes cured for 90 days (35 GPa for NP100/90) can be up to 14% compared to concretes cured for 28 days (30.7 GPa for NP100/28). Capillary absorption coefficients decreased in all concretes at advanced ages. The electrical resistivity value of concrete with 100% natural perlite (139.75 kΩ-m for NP100/90) was 140% higher than the control concrete (58.14 kΩ-m for C/90). It was observed that insulating concrete could be produced with an increase in the use of natural perlite at advanced ages. It was determined that concretes with 75% and 100% natural perlite exhibited high resistance against acid and sulfate attacks. The 30% perlite ratio was the critical ratio against aggressive solutions. In line with the aim of the study, it has been proved that lightweight concretes with a high natural perlite dosage can be produced in terms of permeability and durability properties without compromising mechanical strength.