in: New Horizons in Social, Human and Administrative Sciences, Sönmez S., Özçoban E., Balkan D., Karakuş H., Editor, Gece Kitaplığı, Ankara, New York, pp.315-328, 2019
Eating is considered as a fundamental physical need in Maslow hierarchy of needs. Continuous requirement is felt for food in order to meet this need. We consume fruits and vegetables raw and we meet our nutritional needs with meals that are cooked using various methods. Meals and eating are two important terms that have multiple meanings. In addition, Meals convey various codes and messages. In addition to serving as a symbol and means of communication, meals are of great physical and social importance for people (Gu¨rhan, 2017). For example, chocolate conveys the message of happiness and Turkish co ee represents friendship.
Rice is used as staple food in the eastern and south-eastern part of the Asian Continent. Fish and sh products are staple food for Scandinavian countries while grains, fruits, vegetables and meat are used while cooking meals in countries like Turkey with climatic variety (S¸ahin, Bagˆcı, O¨zlu¨, & Usta, 2017). Meals are universal and they attribute certain characteristics to societies. Meals are important components forming the identity of the destinations where they are produced. This is the reason why certain cities are associated with some meals. Adana and Urfa Kebab, Gaziantep baklava, Bursa Iskender doner kebab, Hatay kunefe, Erzurum Cag kebab, Erzincan Tulum cheese are some of the examples.
A meal may be speci c to certain area, region and di erent regions may consume di erent versions of a meal. Meals vary based on movements of societies and changes in geographical and climatic conditions. Societies are in constant interaction with the environment. It is not possible to restrict such interaction and variation in meals in open societies. On the other hand, cultural values of societies have in uence on eating habits as much as they have on lifestyles of people. Therefore, almost each cuisine around the world have di erent characteristics compared to other cuisines...